Abattoir technology includes all the methods used to produce a dressed carcass from a live animal and is an important subject with regard to animal welfare. From a scientific viewpoint as well, it is not possible to ignore all other body systems except those that contribute directly to the commercial carcass.
Anterior = towards the head
Posterior = towards the tail
Dorsal = towards the upper part or back of the standing animal
Ventral = towards the lower part or belly of the standing animal
Medial = towards the midline plane that separates right and left sides of the body
Lateral = towards the sides of a standing animal
Proximal = towards the body in a limb of the animal
Distal = away from the body in a limb of the animal
The names for different types of farm animals also may be unfamiliar to some readers. The adjectives that relate to cattle, sheep and pigs are bovine, ovine and porcine, respectively. The first of these may be used elliptically so that bovine may stand for bovine animal. For cattle, sheep, pigs and poultry, the sire or father is called a bull, a ram, a boar or a cock (tom in turkeys), respectively, while the dam or mother is called a cow, a ewe, a sow or a hen, respectively. A heifer is an immature female bovine, and a gilt is an immature female pig. A hogget is a yearling sheep. The neonates or new-born of cattle, sheep and pigs are called calves, lambs or piglets, respectively. For pigs, the process of birth or parturition is called farrowing. Newly hatched chickens, turkeys, ducks and geese are called chicks, poults, ducklings or goslings, respectively. For cattle, sheep, pigs and poultry, a castrated male is called a steer, a wether, a barrow or a caponxv , respectively.